With its high polar properties, ursodeoxycholic acid is embedded in the membrane of the hepatocyte, cholangiocytes and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract and stabilizes its structure and protects the cell from damaging effects of toxic bile acid salts, thus reducing their cytotoxic effect. It forms a non-toxic mixed micelles with apolar (toxic) bile acids, which reduces the ability of gastric reflyuktata damage cell membranes with biliary reflux gastritis and reflux esophagitis. By reducing the concentration and stimulating cholepoiesis rich in bicarbonates, effectively contributes to resolution of intrahepatic cholestasis. In cholestasis activates how to inject testosteron dependent protease and alpha-stimulated exocytosis, reduces the concentration of toxic bile acids (chenodeoxycholic, lithocholic, deoxycholic et al.) Whose concentrations in patients with chronic liver disease increased.
Competitive lypofilnyh reduces the absorption of bile acids in the intestine, increases their “fractional” turnover with enterohepatic circulation, induces cholepoiesis stimulates the passage of bile and excretion of toxic bile acids through the intestine. It reduces the saturation of bile cholesterol by inhibiting its absorption in the intestine, suppression of the synthesis in the liver and decrease secretion in the bile; increases the solubility of cholesterol in bile, forming with it the liquid crystals; bile lithogenic index decreases, it increases in the concentration of bile acids causes increased gastric and pancreatic secretion, enhances the activity of the lipase having hypoglycemic action. It is a partial or complete dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, reduces the saturation of bile with cholesterol, which contributes to its mobilization of gallstones. The result is the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones and preventing the formation of new stones.
Immunomodulatory effects due to inhibition of the expression of major histocompatibility antigen on the membranes of hepatocytes and HLA-2 – on cholangiocytes, normalization of natural killer activity of lymphocytes, interleukin-2, reducing the number of eosinophils, suppression of immune immunoglobulin, especially. It delays the progression of fibrosis. It adjusts the apoptosis of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract.
How to inject testosterone is absorbed in the small intestine due to passive diffusion (approximately 90%) and in the ileum by an active transport. The maximum plasma concentration when administered 50 mg of 30, 60, 90 minutes – 3.8 mmol / l 5.5 mmol / l and 3.7 mmol / l, respectively. The time to reach maximum plasma concentration is reached after 1-3 hours. Relationship to plasma proteins is high – up to 96-99%. It penetrates through the placental barrier. The systematic drug taking becomes the primary bile acid in serum. It is metabolized in the liver (clearance at “primary pass” through the liver) in the taurine and glycine conjugates. The resulting conjugates are secreted into bile. Approximately 50-70% of the dose is excreted in the bile. A small number of nevsosavsheysya enters the large intestine, where bacteria undergoes cleavage (7-dehydroxylation); lithocholic acid formed partially absorbed from the colon, but sulfated in the liver and rapidly excreted in the form sulfolitoholilglitsinovogo or sulfolito-holiltaurinovogo conjugate.
- Uncomplicated gallstone disease how to inject testosteron : biliary sludge; the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones with functioning gallbladder; relapse prevention of stone formation after cholecystectomy
- Chronic hepatitis of various genesis (toxic, drugs, etc.).
- Cholestatic liver disease of various origins, including primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cystic fibrosis (cystic fibrosis)
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Chronic Viral Hepatitis
- Biliary dyskinesia
- Biliary reflux gastritis and reflux esophagitisContraindications:
Hypersensitivity, rentgenpolozhitelnye (high in calcium), gallstones, nonfunctioning gallbladder, expressed by the human kidney, liver, pancreas, liver cirrhosis in the stage of decompensation, acute infectious and inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract.
Ursodeoxycholic acid has no age restrictions in the application, however, children under the age of 3 years is not recommended to use the drug in the dosage form.